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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A post of the Bangladesh—India border. Deaths along the Bangladesh—India border.
How Asians View Each Other". Ministry of External Affairs. Archived from the original PDF on Politics, Economy and Civil Society.
By , Pakistan had recognised Bangladesh, and Mujib Saudi Arabia to recognise Bangladesh This shift also contributed to the creation of a more anti-Indian domestic political climate Relations with China also continued to remain close, but unlike Zia, Ershad did not make any effort to maintain friendly relations with the Soviet Union.
University Press of America. Archived from the original on The Times Of India. Archived from the original on 20 September Indiscriminate Killings, Abuse by Border Officers".
Indo Asian News Service. The Daily Star Bangladesh. Video showing BSF torture surfaces". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 7 April The Times of India.
Indian students protest as medical board fails to register them". Foreign relations of India. Foreign relations of Bangladesh. Farakka Barrage Teesta Barrage.
Diplomatic missions of Bangladesh Diplomatic missions in Bangladesh UN peacekeeping missions Bangladeshi diaspora Bangladeshi diplomats. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
Andrie Steyn has been named as replacement, although she will join the squad only before the 2nd T20I against Sri Lanka.
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At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal , it was decided votes to 35 that the province should not be partitioned and votes to 34 that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned.
Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh.
The Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August East Bengal, with Dhaka its capital, was the most populous province of the Pakistani federation led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah , who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state.
Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the s.
The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the East Bengali legislative election. Pakistan adopted its first constitution in Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy.
None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office. Political repression increased after the coup. In Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan , a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism.
According to senior World Bank officials, Pakistan practiced extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law.
Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military. The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution, but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office. This time the struggle is for our independence.
The Pakistan Army continued to massacre Bengali students , intellectuals , politicians, civil servants and military defectors in the Bangladesh genocide , while the Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerilla forces created strong resistance throughout the country.
The first major benefit concert in history, it was organized by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar. The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April , converting the elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh.
The military wing of the provisional government was the Bangladesh Forces that included Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerilla forces.
Led by General M. Osmani and eleven sector commanders , the forces strongly held the countryside during the war and conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces.
As a result, almost entire country except capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November.
India retaliated both in western and eastern fronts. By joint Bangladeshi ground advance and Indian air strike, the rest capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid December.
The nine-months long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognized around the world.
By August , the new state was recognized by 86 countries. The new constitution included references to socialism , and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalized major industries in Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and National Socialist Party , he became increasingly authoritarian.
Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers including the suspension of fundamental rights.
The Bangladesh famine of also worsened the political situation. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications, and amended the constitution to increase his power.
He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months.
Ahmad is widely regarded as a quisling by Bangladeshis. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years.
In , Army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Rahman was assassinated in , and was succeeded by Vice President Abdus Sattar.
Ershad lifted martial law in General elections were held in and , although the latter was boycotted by the opposition BNP and Awami League.
Ershad pursued administrative decentralization, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from to In her finance minister, Saifur Rahman , began a major program to liberalize the Bangladeshi economy.
In February , a general election was held which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a of seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June , overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman , the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh.
The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth [ citation needed ] , but political turmoil gripped the country between and A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB , carried out a series of bombings [ citation needed ].
The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation, and hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in , including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai , who were executed with other top leaders in March , bringing the militant group to an end.
In , at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government.
As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed , was installed.
In the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory.
In , the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker-government system.
Citing the lack of caretaker government the general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory.
The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election and seats of went uncontested in the election.
Despite the controversy Hasina went on to form a Government which saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. The geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions.
Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta ; the northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus.
The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna main channel of the Brahmaputra and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal.
Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers , making the resolution of water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India.
Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land.
With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late s.
The effort has become a multi-agency endeavor, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers.
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,    each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Divisions are subdivided into districts zila.
There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila subdistricts or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions , with each union consisting of multiple villages.
In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials.
Direct elections are held in each union or ward for a chairperson and a number of members. In , a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats out of 12 in every union for female candidates.
Natural calamities, such as floods , tropical cyclones , tornadoes , and tidal bores occur almost every year,  combined with the effects of deforestation , soil degradation and erosion.
The cyclones of and were particularly devastating, the latter killing some , people. In September , Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history.
Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas , and the widespread cutting down of trees that would have intercepted rain water for firewood or animal husbandry.
Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter.
There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically.
Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.
Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries , lakes, wetlands , evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests , freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass.
The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango , jackfruit , bamboo , betel nut , coconut and date palm.
Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries—the South , East and West zones.
The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests , a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests.
The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh.
Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands.
Other animals include the black giant squirrel , capped langur , Bengal fox , sambar deer , jungle cat , king cobra , wild boar , mongooses , pangolins , pythons and water monitors.
Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A census found 6, Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.
It also has species of birds. Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl.
The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats.
Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas , including wetlands, forests and rivers.
The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. The Constitution of Bangladesh established a unitary , Westminster -style parliamentary republic with universal suffrage.
A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority usually the chair of the largest party is the Prime Minister , the head of government and of the cabinet.
Bangladesh is governed by a member parliament, known as the Jatiyo Sangshad. Three hundred of its members are elected on a first past the post basis, and 50 seats are reserved for female nominees by political parties.
Although parliamentary elections are scheduled every five years, they have often been delayed by political crises, emergency rule or martial law.
The President of Bangladesh is the head of state. From to the presidency had executive powers, but it has been reduced to a largely-ceremonial role by the Twelfth Amendment to the constitution.
Since , the Bangladesh Nationalist Party BNP , and the Bangladesh Awami League , have been the two major political parties in Bangladesh and have engaged in bitter rivalries and skirmishes.
In , the Fifteenth Amendment mandated the "highest punishment" for usurpers. The Jatiyo Sangshad is restrained from holding no-confidence motions, floor crossing and free votes by Article 70 of the constitution.
Human-rights violations have increased due to the growing power of security forces—particularly the Rapid Action Battalion , which is accused of arbitrary arrests, summary executions and forced disappearances.
Marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic , Hindu and Christian family law. The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations , such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation.
The courts have wide latitude in judicial review , and judicial precedent is supported by the Article of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts.
Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline.
In the army strength was around ,, including reservists,  the Air Force 22, and the Navy 24, The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet after India and Thailand of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal , including guided-missile frigates , submarines , cutters and aircraft.
The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military have increased, with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.
The first major intergovernmental organization joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization.
In addition to membership in the Commonwealth and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional cooperation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC , an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members.
It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries.
Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries , a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics. The United States is a major economic and security partner , including its largest export market and foreign investor.
Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favorably in , one of the highest ratings among Asian countries. Relations with other countries are generally positive.
Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries, and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries.
Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers , relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture; more than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region.
In , the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries". In , major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".
The countries are forging regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal.
Indo-Bangladesh relations have a shared cultural heritage and democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence.
Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues.
China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.
The neighbouring country of Myanmar was one of first countries to recognize Bangladesh. In , the countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime disputes in the Bay of Bengal.
The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.
Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the Bangladesh genocide.
Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H.
However, government and security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses. The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space".
Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion RAB , have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses including enforced disappearances , torture and extrajudicial killings.
Over 1, people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government.
Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh , and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups.
The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups, notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Shibir.
Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in , falling to four percent in According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,, people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.
Bangladesh, a developing country with a market-based mixed economy , is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets.
During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies. In , finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalization.
The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy. Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals , shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods.
Export-oriented industrialization has increased, with fiscal year —15 exports increasing by 3. According to the World Bank , poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges.
Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector.
The country is among the top producers of rice fourth , potatoes seventh , tropical fruits sixth , jute second , and farmed fish fifth.
Major gas fields are located in the northeastern particularly Sylhet and southern including Barisal and Chittagong regions. PetroBangla is the national energy company.
Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak.
The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries. Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade.
Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international market share. The electronics industry is growing rapidly, particularly the Walton Group.
Microfinance was pioneered in Bangladesh by Muhammad Yunus. Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly, and includes the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines.
Bangladesh has a number of airports: The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations.
Bangladesh has a 2,kilometre 1,mile rail network operated by state-owned Bangladesh Railway. It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world,  with 8, kilometres 5, miles of navigable waters.
Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports. Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 10, MW in January Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.
Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where water revenue does not cover operating costs.
An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in Activities for tourists include angling , water skiing , river cruising, hiking, rowing , yachting , and sea bathing.
Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests ,, million. In , its population was 44 million. Its total fertility rate is now 2.
The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 70 years in Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from to in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people.
Although a peace accord was signed in , the region remains militarized. Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Mayors are elected for five-year terms.
Altogether there are urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali, sometimes called Bangla, as their native language.
Pakistani Biharis , stranded since and living in Bangladeshi camps, speak Urdu. Bengali is the official language. Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until Islam is the largest and the official state religion of Bangladesh,   followed by About four percent are non-denominational Muslims.
The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. Hinduism is followed by Despite their dwindling numbers, Hindus are the second-largest religious community after the Muslims in Dhaka.
Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , and coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.
Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0. The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics.
It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh has a low literacy rate , which was estimated at In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
The education system is divided into five levels: Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to four years of secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.
Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.
Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.
Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.
Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: Bangladesh has 34 public, 64 private and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrollment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.
University of Chittagong established in is the largest University Campus: Rural, 2, acres 8. Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.
The NITER is a specialized public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering.
Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the s. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Volume Three — South Asia. Sogra, Khair Jahan Millions in Bangladesh exposed to arsenic in drinking water". Border police often shoots to kill super great entfernen illegal immigrants crossing the border. Retrieved 1 December lewandowsky 5 tore Black tea is offered casino jack based on true story guests as a gesture of welcome. Brathwaite and Hope hold firm after Stokes strikes. Islam is the official religion rubbellose lottoland Bangladesh. Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement. They are also the largest trading partners in South Asia.