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List of films shot in Romania. Romanian dress , Folklore of Romania , and Romanian cuisine. International sources give higher figures than the official census e.

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Archived from the original on 3 April Archived from the original on 22 April Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 7 July Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 14 October Romania va trimite fregata Regele Ferdinand cu militari in Mediterana pentru operatiuni de blocare a oricarei nave suspecte ca transporta armament " in Romanian.

Archived from the original on 25 March Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on 19 February Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 13 June Romanian National Institute of Statistics.

Archived PDF from the original on 16 February Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 11 June National Institute of Statistics. Archived PDF from the original on 5 March Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 5 March Eurostat 12 April Retrieved on 13 May Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original PDF on 28 June Archived from the original on 1 May Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 15 September Archived from the original on 8 March Commission of the European Communities.

Archived from the original PDF on 25 October Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 29 September Archived PDF from the original on 13 November Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original PDF on 11 December Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original PDF on 10 October Archived from the original on 18 August Archived from the original on 19 August Archived from the original on 9 April Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 6 July Archived PDF from the original on 5 April Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 9 August Archived from the original on 11 October Archived from the original on 2 August Archived from the original on 2 September Archived from the original on 9 September Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 7 August The future is not inviting" PDF.

Archived PDF from the original on 10 May Retrieved 9 February Institutul de Cercetare pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara a semnat contractul de 66 milioane euro pentru realizarea Sistemului Fascicul Gamma — Esential".

Archived from the original on 11 August Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge — Novinite. Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original on 16 January Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 24 January Archived from the original on 19 March Archived from the original on 6 September Archived from the original on 6 April Archived from the original on 23 January Archived from the original on 5 February Archived from the original on 15 March Tu masz link o kobietach w Egipcie.

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Modern Romania was formed in through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since , gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in After the Revolution , Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a market economy.

The sovereign state of Romania is a developing country [9] [10] and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian , a Romance language.

Romania derives from the Latin romanus , meaning "citizen of Rome". The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania or Roumania. Greek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centers of commerce with the local tribes.

The Carpians , Goths and other neighboring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the s. Skull from the " Cave with Bones " the oldest known remain of Homo sapiens in Europe.

Decebalus , the last of the Dacian kings. Roman soldiers fighting Dacians, depiction based on a bas-relief from the Arch of Constantine in Rome.

Roman baths at Potaissa a Roman colonia in Dacia. A 4th-century pectoral cross from Dinogetia a Roman town in Scythia Minor. The 4th-century Biertan Donarium from Biertan, southern Transylvania.

Subsequently, as the High Middle Ages came to an end and the Late Middle Ages began, many small Romanian-speaking states with varying degrees of independence developed, but only under the reigns of Basarab I and Bogdan I the larger principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia would emerge in the 14th century.

Under Radu I and his successor Dan I , the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary, [53] while Wallachia and Moldavia remained largely independent from the Kingdom of Hungary , yet soon enough being forced to withstand the Ottoman threat from the east.

By , the entire Balkan peninsula and most of the high medieval Hungarian Kingdom had already been conquered and integrated into the Ottoman Empire.

In stark contrast, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, while still under Ottoman suzerainty , preserved partial or full internal autonomy way until the midth century Transylvania until [56].

This period featured several prominent rulers such as: In , all three principalities were ruled simultaneously by the Wallachian prince Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazul , who was considered, later on, the precursor of modern Romania and became a point of reference for nationalists , as well as a catalyst for achieving a single Romanian state.

During the period of the Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and of Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were given few rights [60] in a territory where they formed the majority of the population.

The flag adopted for Wallachia by the revolutionaries was a blue-yellow-red horizontal tricolour with blue above, in line with the meaning "Liberty, Justice, Fraternity" , [63] while Romanian students in Paris hailed the new government with the same flag "as a symbol of union between Moldavians and Wallachians".

Romania remained neutral for the first two years of World War I. Following the secret Treaty of Bucharest , according to which Romania would acquire territories with a majority of Romanian population from Austria-Hungary , it joined the Entente Powers and declared war on 27 August Romania was occupied and a harsh peace treaty was signed in May In November, Romania reentered the conflict.

Total military and civilian losses from to , within contemporary borders, were estimated at , With oil production of 7.

During World War II, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on 28 June , it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.

As a result of it the Romanian government and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well as from northern Bukovina in order to avoid war with the Soviet Union.

The Antonescu fascist regime played a major role in The Holocaust in Romania , [88] [89] and copied the Nazi policies of oppression and genocide of Jews and Roma , mainly in the Eastern territories reoccupied by the Romanians from the Soviet Union.

In total between , and , Jews in Romania including Bessarabia, Bukovina and the Transnistria Governorate were killed during the war [90] [91] and at least 11, Romanian Gypsies "Roma" were also killed.

Antonescu was convicted of war crimes and executed on 1 June During the Antonescu fascist regime, Romanian contribution to Operation Barbarossa was enormous, with the Romanian Army of over 1.

It is estimated that the coup shortened the war by as much as six months. In , the state began to nationalize private firms and to collectivize agriculture.

During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges in which numerous " enemies of the state " and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment, such as deportation, internal exile, and internment in forced labour camps and prisons, sometimes for life, as well as extrajudicial killing.

The latter eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy.

The process succeeded in repaying all foreign government debt of Romania in The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.

The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local [] and foreign media, [] and is remembered as the June Mineriad.

The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Party.

The former governed Romania from until through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: In November , Sibiu German: Hermannstadt mayor Klaus Johannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta , who had been in the lead in the opinion polls.

This surprise victory is attributed by many to the Romanian diaspora , of which almost 50 percent voted for Iohannis in the first tour, compared to 16 percent for Ponta.

The post period is also characterized by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period have been closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatization of the post regimes.

Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics. Nevertheless, many efforts were made. The country applied in June for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in , an Acceding Country in , and a full member on 1 January During the s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe".

Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure, [] medical services, [] education , [] and corruption. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms.

Following the experience of economic instability throughout the s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy and Spain.

The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria , and flows into the Black Sea , forming the Danube Delta , which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and also a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.

Owing to its distance from open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental , with four distinct seasons.

The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches.

It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both government and the president.

The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament residing at the Palace of the Parliament , consists of two chambers Senate and Chamber of Deputies whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice , which is the supreme court of Romania.

The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model , considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature.

Since December , Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union , albeit with limited relations involving the Russian Federation.

Past recent governments states that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries in particular Moldova , Ukraine , and Georgia with the process of integration with the rest of the West.

Romania opted on 1 January , to adhere the Schengen Area , and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June , but was rejected by the EU Council in September Relations with Moldova are a special case, considering that the two countries share the same language and a common history.

The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15, civilians and 75, are military personnel—45, for land, 13, for air, 6, for naval forces, and 8, in other fields.

The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG Lancer fighters which are due to be replaced by twelve Fs , recently purchased. Romania has contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan since , [] with a peak deployment of 1, troops in which was the 4th largest contributor according to the US.

Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July , among the last countries to do so.

The Regele Ferdinand frigate participated in the military intervention in Libya. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level.

The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. There are a total of cities and 2, communes in Romania.

The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors []: The NUTS-1 four macroregions and NUTS-2 [] eight development regions divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.

After the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform.

From onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterized by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation.

Industrial output growth reached 6. After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late s and s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.

Since , Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe.

After joining the EU in , Romania is expected to adopt the Euro sometime around Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 48th worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy.

There were almost 18,3 million connections to the Internet in June, In , Romania had 32, companies which were active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of EUR 2.

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. During the s and s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable brain drain.

In October , Romanians made up The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians , 6. The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1.

The official language is Romanian , a Romance language the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch , which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian , Megleno-Romanian , and Istro-Romanian , but equally shares many features with the rest of the Western Romance languages , specifically Italian , French , Spanish , Portuguese , and Catalan.

There are also approximately 50, native speakers of Ukrainian concentrated in some compact regions, near the border, where they form local majorities , [] 25, native speakers of German , and some native speakers 32, Turkish living in Romania.

Foreign citizens and stateless persons that live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language. Romania is a secular state and has no state religion.

An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. Other denominations include Protestantism 6.

Moreover, 39, people have no religion or are atheist , whilst the religion of the rest is unknown. The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader.

It is the second-largest Orthodox Church in the world [ citation needed ] , and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and utilizes a Romance liturgical language.

Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2. Since the Romanian Revolution of , the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism.

Out of these, , in kindergarten 3—6 years , 3. There also exists a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which has prospered during the Communist regime.

Romania ranks 5th in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with total medals, dating back to Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper 42 points for gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, doing it all three times he participated in the IMO , , Romania also ranks 6th in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with total medals, dating back to The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics.

The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards.

The topic of the origin of the Romanians began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honor of the 20th-century eponymous composer.

Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu , Gheorghe Zamfir , [] [] Inna , [] Alexandra Stan [] and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim.

At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers have achieved third place in and In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim.

There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day , celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the union of Transylvania with Romania.

Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian and German cuisine especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy , but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkan region such as the Greek , Bulgarian , or Serbian cuisine.

Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular. Association football soccer is the most popular sport in Romania with over , registered players as of [update].

The Romania national football team played its first match in and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups , the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium.

Tennis is the second-most-popular sport, with over 15, registered players. Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in , and was runner-up in , Simona Halep won in and was runner up in and She is currently ranked 1st by the WTA.

Other popular team sports are team handball , [] basketball [] and rugby union. In , Romania was chosen as a host for the EuroBasket.

The rugby national team has competed in every Rugby World Cup. Romania participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in and has taken part in 21 of the 28 summer games.

It has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games , with a total of medals won throughout the years, of which 89 gold ones, ranking 15th overall , and second of the nations that have never hosted the game.

It participated at the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and finished second in gold medals 20 and third in total medal count From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Romania disambiguation. Show map of Europe. Independence proclaimed on 9 May , internationally recognised in The union of Romania with Bessarabia , Bukovina and Transylvania in The Communist regime fell on 22 December , the new democratic government was installed on 20 May and the new post-communist constitution was adopted on 21 November Romania joined the European Union on 1 January The three medieval principalities of Wallachia , Moldavia , and Transylvania , unified under the reign of Michael the Brave.

Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.

A British map showing territories with majority Romanian populations marked in black and surrounding enclaves of German-speaking minorities in red.

Socialist Republic of Romania. History of Romania since Geography of Romania and Climate of Romania. Politics of Romania and Government of Romania.

Foreign relations of Romania. Romanian Armed Forces and Military history of Romania. Administrative divisions of Romania. Agriculture in Romania and Industry of Romania.

Transport in Romania and Energy in Romania. Putna Monastery in Bukovina , the oldest of the medieval churches of Moldavia. Mamaia Black Sea resort.

Science and technology in Romania and List of Romanian inventors and discoverers. Minorities of Romania and Romanian diaspora.

Romanian language and Languages of Romania. Religion in Romania and Romanian Orthodox Church. List of cities and towns in Romania and Metropolitan Areas in Romania.

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Ach ten relatywizm moralny. Dibelius, tak przy okazji Dibeliusie Piszesz o korzeniach wiary. I kto chce, to przychodzi.

Rozumiana nawet nie jako akceptacja, ale zwyczajnie: Taka postawa mnie brzydzi. Od spraw nawet tak podstawowych. Nikt im tego nie broni.

To tylko na zdrowie wychodzi wszystkim. O przyczynach niedawno bodaj tu pisano. Dibelius3 lutego Zmiana kultury nie biologii. To nie jest problem.

Rumunia — teledysk folkowy: Julianne 7 lutego Dibelius 8 lutego Julianne 8 lutego Anonimowy 8 lutego Kira 8 lutego Kamil Politowicz 9 lutego Dibelius 9 lutego

2 comments on “Rumunia polska

  1. Zulugrel

    Im Vertrauen gesagt ist meiner Meinung danach offenbar. Ich werde zu diesem Thema nicht sagen.

    Reply

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