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Uzb

uzb

Herzlich willkommen in den Universitätszahnkliniken. Unsere Spezialistenteams behandeln Patientinnen und Patienten mit den verschiedensten Anliegen nach. Many translated example sentences containing "uzb" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Schlagwort: UZB. Basel. Unizahnklinik und neue FMS nehmen Form an. · Basel. Zentrum für Zahnmedizin auch mit schwarzen Zahlen.

Uzb Video

Zo'r kilib 2018 (uzb kilib)

Uzb - simply magnificent

In Fortbildungskursen für Zahnärztinnen und Zahnärzte vermitteln unsere Expertinnen und Experten praxisnahes Wissen unter Berücksichtigung der aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen. Unsere Standorte Schulzahnklinik St. Nationalstrasse N2, Erhaltungsprojekt Schänzli. Mehr erfahren Soziale Zahnmedizin Zahngesundheit ist kein Privileg. Kinder- zahnmedizin Bei uns sind Ihre Kinder richtig. Was tun, erfahren Sie hier!

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MEIN LOTTO24 LOGIN Indem Sie hier fortfahren, stimmen Sie der Nutzung von Cookies zu. Indem Sie hier höchste niederlage fussball, stimmen Sie der Nutzung von Cookies zu. Aktuelles Berufs-und Weiterbildungsmesse vom Volkszahnklinik Claragraben 95 Basel. Die soziale Zahnmedizin bietet das komplette Behandlungsspektrum auf höchstem Niveau. Das ganze Spektrum der Zahnmedizin unter einem Dach: Mehr erfahren Soziale Zahnmedizin Zahngesundheit ist kein Privileg.

Aber der geht doch noch. Aber ein Riesenproblem sind in letzter Zeit die Krypto-Trojaner…. Den letzten Fall hatten wir vor zwei Wochen.

Wir schauen uns das an und sagen: Spielbusch Da geht es meist um Virenbefall, weil der Kunde meint, mit seinem kostenlosen Virenschutz sei er bestens bedient.

Spielbusch Wir haben mal mit einem Kunden eine Wette abgeschlossen: Dein Rechner hat Viren, das kann ich schon riechen. Nein, ich habe seit Jahren einen kostenlosen Schutz.

Ich hatte noch nie ein Problem. Fragen Sie sich doch mal, warum es von einem Hersteller ein kostenloses und ein kostenpflichtiges Produkt gibt.

Spielbusch Die nennt sich nur Firewall. Wie Schnupfen im Bus. Das kann Ihnen auch auf renommierten Seiten passieren. Heute werden mit Viren auch ganz andere Ziele verfolgt.

Die sind scharf auf Benutzernamen, Kennwort und andere Daten. Die warten nur darauf, dass Sie sich irgendwo anmelden. Spielbusch Das machen wir einmal, zweimal — und dann lassen wir ihn mit dem Rechner alleine.

Aber sobald er damit auch nur Homebanking machen will, lehnen wir das ab. Wer heute noch XP nutzt, steht nackt im Internet.

Sagen Sie auf Partys eigentlich, was Sie beruflich machen? Spielbusch Wir leben hier auf dem Dorf, uns kennt im Prinzip jeder.

Spielbusch Eine Kunde ruft an und sagt: Du, mein Schwager Paul hat den PC neu gemacht. Da ist was schiefgelaufen. Er hat ihm das Betriebssystem neu installiert.

Und dann fragt er Paul: Wo sind denn meine Kinderfotos? Und Paul hat keine Ahnung. Spielbusch Zuhause nutze ich nur noch das Tablet.

Spielbusch Zu meinem Techniker. Oder in spezielle Internetforen, also nicht gerade gutefrage. Teilen Weiterleiten Tweeten Weiterleiten Drucken.

Wann haben Sie zuletzt in die Tastatur gebissen? Philipp Spielbusch Heute Morgen. However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.

The Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use.

Reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agency.

Due to the Aral Sea problem, high salinity and contamination of the soil with heavy elements are especially widespread in Karakalpakstan , the region of Uzbekistan adjacent to the Aral Sea.

Heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers for cotton growing further aggravates soil contamination. The first people known to have inhabited Central Asia were Scythians who came from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan, sometime in the first millennium BC; when these nomads settled in the region they built an extensive irrigation system along the rivers.

As China began to develop its silk trade with the West, Persian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centres of trade. As a result of this trade on what became known as the Silk Route , Bukhara and Samarkand eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Transoxiana Mawarannahr was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.

For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by the Persian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Empires, as well as by other empires, for example those formed by the Turko-Persian Hephthalite and Turkic Gokturk peoples.

In the 8th century, Transoxiana, the territory between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, was conquered by the Arabs Ali ibn Sattor who enriched the region with the Early Renaissance.

Many notable scientists lived there and contributed to its development during the Islamic Golden Age. Among the achievements of the scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moon , advances in optics , in astronomy , as well as in poetry, philosophy, art, calligraphy and many others, which set the foundation for the Muslim Renaissance.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, Transoxiana was included into the Samanid State. The Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan during the 13th century would bring about a change to the region.

The Mongol invasion of Central Asia led to the displacement of some of the Iranian-speaking people of the region, their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian - Turkic peoples who came thereafter.

The invasions of Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and others resulted in mass murders and unprecedented destruction, such as portions of Khwarezmia being completely razed.

Following the death of Genghis Khan in , his empire was divided among his four sons and his family members.

Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, the Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Transoxiana stayed in the hands of the direct descendants of Chagatai Khan , the second son of Genghis Khan.

Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained a strong and united kingdom Ulus Batiy, Sattarkhan.

During this period, most of present Uzbekistan was part of the Chagatai Khanate except Khwarezm was part of the Golden Horde. In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts.

The Chaghatai territory was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence. One tribal chieftain, Timur Tamerlane , [34] emerged from these struggles in the s as the dominant force in Transoxiana.

Although he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan, Timur became the de facto ruler of Transoxiana and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran , the Caucasus , Mesopotamia , Asia Minor , and the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea.

He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in Timur was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres in the cities he occupied.

Timur initiated the last flowering of Transoxiana by gathering together numerous artisans and scholars from the vast lands he had conquered into his capital, Samarqand.

By supporting such people, he imbued his empire with a rich Perso-Islamic culture. During his reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction masterpieces were undertaken in Samarqand and other population centres.

It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Transoxiana, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature.

The Timurid state quickly split in half after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea.

In the Uzbek forces began a wholesale invasion of Transoxiana. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand and spread into Central Asia.

There were , Russians living in Uzbekistan in A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of Much of the land between was unmapped.

By the beginning of , Central Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia and, despite some early resistance to the Bolsheviks , Uzbekistan and the rest of the Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union.

A number also fought on the German side. As many as , Uzbek soldiers died in the battlefields of the Eastern Front , and 32, went missing in action.

On 20 June , Uzbekistan declared its state sovereignty. On 31 August , Uzbekistan declared independence after the failed coup attempt in Moscow.

The Soviet Union was dissolved on 26 December of that year. Islam Karimov, ruler of Uzbekistan since independence, died on 2 September After Uzbekistan declared independence from the Soviet Union in , an election was held, and Islam Karimov was elected as the first President of Uzbekistan.

The elections of the Oliy Majlis Parliament or Supreme Assembly were held under a resolution adopted by the 16th Supreme Soviet in In that year, the Supreme Soviet was replaced by the Oliy Majlis.

The third elections for the bicameral member Oliy Majlis, the Legislative Chamber, and the member Senate for five-year terms, were held on 27 December The second elections were held in December to January The Oliy Majlis was unicameral up to Its size increased from 69 deputies members in to in —05, and currently stands at Most international observers refused to participate in the process and did not recognize the results, dismissing them as not meeting basic standards.

The referendum also included a plan for a bicameral parliament consisting of a lower house the Oliy Majlis and an upper house Senate.

Members of the lower house are to be "full-time" legislators. Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on 26 December. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan asserts that "democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be based upon common human principles, according to which the highest value shall be the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights.

The official position is summarised in a memorandum "The measures taken by the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of providing and encouraging human rights" [42] and amounts to the following: Uzbekistan continuously improves its laws and institutions in order to create a more humane society.

Over laws regulating the rights and basic freedoms of the people have been passed by the parliament. For instance, an office of Ombudsman was established in However, non-governmental human rights organizations, such as IHF , Human Rights Watch , Amnesty International , as well as United States Department of State and Council of the European Union , define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights" [14] and express profound concern about "wide-scale violation of virtually all basic human rights".

It has also been reported that forced sterilization of rural Uzbek women has been sanctioned by the government. As of , reports on violations on human rights in Uzbekistan indicated that violations were still going on without any improvement.

In the report, Uzbekistan was one of the 11 worst countries for Political Rights and Civil Liberties. The civil unrest in Uzbekistan , which resulted in several hundred people being killed, is viewed by many as a landmark event in the history of human rights abuse in Uzbekistan.

The government of Uzbekistan is accused of unlawful termination of human life and of denying its citizens freedom of assembly and freedom of expression.

The government vehemently rebuffs the accusations, maintaining that it merely conducted an anti-terrorist operation, exercising only necessary force.

In real terms, this means that there are 1. Most work in the cotton industry. The government allegedly forces state employees to pick cotton in the fall months.

Islam Karimov died in and his successor Shavkat Mirziyoyev is considered by most to be pursuing a less autocratic path by increasing cooperation with human rights NGOs, [58] [59] scheduling Soviet-style exit visas to be abolished in , [60] and reducing sentences for certain misdemeanor offenses.

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces viloyatlar , singular viloyat , compound noun viloyati e. Names are given below in Uzbek , Russian , and Karakalpak languages when applicable, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist.

The provinces are further divided into districts tuman. Uzbekistan has the fourth-largest gold deposits in the world.

The country mines 80 tons of gold annually, seventh in the world. The country has significant untapped reserves of oil and gas: It is also a regionally significant producer of natural gas, coal, copper, oil, silver and uranium.

Facing a multitude of economic challenges upon acquiring independence, the government adopted an evolutionary reform strategy, with an emphasis on state control, reduction of imports and self-sufficiency in energy.

Since , the state-controlled media have repeatedly proclaimed the success of this "Uzbekistan Economic Model" [76] and suggested that it is a unique example of a smooth transition to the market economy while avoiding shock, pauperism and stagnation.

The gradualist reform strategy has involved postponing significant macroeconomic and structural reforms. The state in the hands of the bureaucracy has remained a dominant influence in the economy.

Corruption permeates the society and grows more rampant over time: A February report on the country by the International Crisis Group suggests that revenues earned from key exports, especially cotton, gold, corn and increasingly gas, are distributed among a very small circle of the ruling elite, with little or no benefit for the populace at large.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit , "the government is hostile to allowing the development of an independent private sector, over which it would have no control".

The economic policies have repelled foreign investment, which is the lowest per capita in the CIS. However, strict currency controls and the tightening of borders have lessened the effect of this measure.

Stabilisation efforts implemented with guidance from the IMF [82] paid off. The government of Uzbekistan restricts foreign imports in many ways, including high import duties.

Excise taxes are applied in a highly discriminatory manner to protect locally produced goods. A number of CIS countries are officially exempt from Uzbekistan import duties.

Uzbekistan has a Bilateral Investment Treaty with fifty other countries. The stocks of all Uzbek joint stock companies around are traded on RSE.

The number of listed companies as of January exceeds Securities market volume reached 2 trillion in , and the number is rapidly growing due to the rising interest by companies of attracting necessary resources through the capital market.

According to Central Depository as of January par value of outstanding shares of Uzbek emitters exceeded 9 trillion. Uzbekistan is predicted to be one of the fastest-growing economies in the world top 26 in future decades, according to a survey by global bank HSBC.

The population of Uzbekistan is very young: There is some controversy about the percentage of the Tajik population. Today, the majority of Uzbeks are admixed and represent varying degrees of diversity.

Uzbekistan has an ethnic Korean population that was forcibly relocated to the region by Stalin from the Soviet Far East in — There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistan , mostly in Tashkent and Samarkand.

There were 94, Jews in Uzbekistan in [97] about 0. Fewer than 5, Jews remained in Uzbekistan in Russians in Uzbekistan represented 5.

During the Soviet period, Russians and Ukrainians constituted more than half the population of Tashkent. Uzbekistan has a Life expectancy in Uzbekistan is 66 years among men and 72 years among women.

Islam is the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, although Soviet power — discouraged the expression of religious belief. Greater population [ clarification needed ] is believed [ by whom?

Despite the predominance of Islam, the practice of the faith is far from monolithic. Uzbekistanis have practised many versions of Islam.

The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularization throughout the 20th century has left a wide variety of Islamic practices in Central Asia.

The end of Soviet control in Uzbekistan in did not bring an immediate upsurge of religion-associated fundamentalism , as many [ quantify ] had predicted, but rather a gradual re-acquaintance with the precepts of the Islamic faith.

The Jewish community in the Uzbek lands flourished for centuries, with occasional hardships during the reigns of certain rulers.

During the rule of Tamerlane in the 14th century Jews contributed greatly to his efforts to rebuild Samarkand and a great Jewish centre was established [ by whom?

After the area came under Russian rule in , Jews were granted [ by whom? By only one synagogue out of 30 remained in Samarkand; nevertheless, underground Jewish community life continued during the Soviet era.

During World War II [ when? In the late s nationalistic riots increased as the Soviet Union started to dissolve, damaging, among other areas, the Jewish quarter in Andijan.

The Uzbek language is one of the Turkic languages close to Uyghur language and both of them belong to the Karluk languages branch of the Turkic language family.

Uzbek language is the only de jure official national language, [] and since is officially written in the Latin alphabet. Although the Russian language is not formally clarified to be an official language in the country, it is widely used in all fields, including official documents.

Digital information from all forms of the government is bilingual. Russian is an important language for interethnic communication, especially in the cities, including much day-to-day social, technical, scientific, governmental and business use.

The country is also home to approximately one million people whose native language is Russian. The Tajik language a variety of Persian is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks official 1,5 million, non-official scholarly estimates are 8—11 million.

Karakalpak , is also a Turkic language but closer to Kazakh , is spoken in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and has an official status there. This language is spoken by half a million people.

More than , people also speak the Kazakh language. In the Latin alphabet was introduced and went through several revisions throughout the s.

Finally, in , the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced by Soviet authorities and was used until the fall of Soviet Union.

In Uzbekistan shifted back to the Latin script Uzbek alphabet , which was modified in and is being taught in schools since In schools, colleges and universities teach only in Latin script.

At the same time, in the country for Uzbek language is also used officially abolished the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is used in a number of popular newspapers and websites.

Some of the text on the TV on some channels is duplicated on the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is popular with the older generation of Uzbeks who grew up on this alphabet.

There are no language requirements for the citizenship of Uzbekistan. According to the official source report, as of 10 March , the number of cellular phone users in Uzbekistan reached 7 million, up from 3.

As of 1 July , the estimated number of internet users was 1. Internet Censorship exists in Uzbekistan and in October the government toughened internet censorship by blocking access to proxy servers.

The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union.

For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekov , the Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city. There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered.

Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo.

Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries. Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighboring former republics of the Soviet Union.

Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan has launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand.

The new high-speed electric train Talgo , called Afrosiyob , was manufactured by Patentes Talgo S. Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off.

Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans.

With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia. The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Army , although it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorized infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state , and supported an active program by the U.

The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U. However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U. The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in , about a quarter of its military budget , the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. It is also believed by some Uzbeks that the protests in Andijan were brought about by the U.

This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West. It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union , formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West.

The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

When Uzbekistan gained independence in , there was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region.

The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam , which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital.

Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modes , similar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone.

Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate , with about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International School , a K international curriculum school.

Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government.

Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas , maintaining campuses in Tashkent.

Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture , as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterized as "noodle-rich".

Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes. Oshi nahor , or morning plov , is served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.

Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorva , a soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually mutton , and fresh vegetables; norin and laghman , noodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; manti , chuchvara , and somsa , stuffed pockets of dough served as an appetizer or a main course; dimlama , a meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabs , usually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage taken throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance.

Black tea is preferred in Tashkent , but both green and black teas are taken daily, without milk or sugar. Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: Ayran , a chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea.

The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries.

Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov. Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times.

Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatov , light flyweight champion at the Summer Olympics , won the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganov , a sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

Gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, and gymnast Oksana Chusovitina has amassed over 70 medals for the country.

Uzbekistan is the home of the International Kurash Association. Kurash is an internationalized and modernized form of traditional Uzbek wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan. The current champions are Lokomotiv Tashkent. Pakhtakor holds the record for the most Uzbekistan champion titles, having won the league 10 times.

The current Player of the Year is Odil Akhmedov.

The first people known to have inhabited Central Asia were Scythians who came from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan, sometime in the first millennium BC; when these nomads settled in the region they built an extensive irrigation system along the rivers.

As China began to develop its silk trade with the West, Persian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centres of trade. As a result of this trade on what became known as the Silk Route , Bukhara and Samarkand eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Transoxiana Mawarannahr was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.

For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by the Persian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Empires, as well as by other empires, for example those formed by the Turko-Persian Hephthalite and Turkic Gokturk peoples.

In the 8th century, Transoxiana, the territory between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, was conquered by the Arabs Ali ibn Sattor who enriched the region with the Early Renaissance.

Many notable scientists lived there and contributed to its development during the Islamic Golden Age. Among the achievements of the scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moon , advances in optics , in astronomy , as well as in poetry, philosophy, art, calligraphy and many others, which set the foundation for the Muslim Renaissance.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, Transoxiana was included into the Samanid State. The Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan during the 13th century would bring about a change to the region.

The Mongol invasion of Central Asia led to the displacement of some of the Iranian-speaking people of the region, their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian - Turkic peoples who came thereafter.

The invasions of Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and others resulted in mass murders and unprecedented destruction, such as portions of Khwarezmia being completely razed.

Following the death of Genghis Khan in , his empire was divided among his four sons and his family members.

Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, the Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Transoxiana stayed in the hands of the direct descendants of Chagatai Khan , the second son of Genghis Khan.

Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained a strong and united kingdom Ulus Batiy, Sattarkhan.

During this period, most of present Uzbekistan was part of the Chagatai Khanate except Khwarezm was part of the Golden Horde. In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts.

The Chaghatai territory was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence. One tribal chieftain, Timur Tamerlane , [34] emerged from these struggles in the s as the dominant force in Transoxiana.

Although he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan, Timur became the de facto ruler of Transoxiana and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran , the Caucasus , Mesopotamia , Asia Minor , and the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea.

He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in Timur was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres in the cities he occupied.

Timur initiated the last flowering of Transoxiana by gathering together numerous artisans and scholars from the vast lands he had conquered into his capital, Samarqand.

By supporting such people, he imbued his empire with a rich Perso-Islamic culture. During his reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction masterpieces were undertaken in Samarqand and other population centres.

It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Transoxiana, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature.

The Timurid state quickly split in half after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea.

In the Uzbek forces began a wholesale invasion of Transoxiana. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand and spread into Central Asia.

There were , Russians living in Uzbekistan in A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of Much of the land between was unmapped.

By the beginning of , Central Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia and, despite some early resistance to the Bolsheviks , Uzbekistan and the rest of the Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union.

A number also fought on the German side. As many as , Uzbek soldiers died in the battlefields of the Eastern Front , and 32, went missing in action.

On 20 June , Uzbekistan declared its state sovereignty. On 31 August , Uzbekistan declared independence after the failed coup attempt in Moscow.

The Soviet Union was dissolved on 26 December of that year. Islam Karimov, ruler of Uzbekistan since independence, died on 2 September After Uzbekistan declared independence from the Soviet Union in , an election was held, and Islam Karimov was elected as the first President of Uzbekistan.

The elections of the Oliy Majlis Parliament or Supreme Assembly were held under a resolution adopted by the 16th Supreme Soviet in In that year, the Supreme Soviet was replaced by the Oliy Majlis.

The third elections for the bicameral member Oliy Majlis, the Legislative Chamber, and the member Senate for five-year terms, were held on 27 December The second elections were held in December to January The Oliy Majlis was unicameral up to Its size increased from 69 deputies members in to in —05, and currently stands at Most international observers refused to participate in the process and did not recognize the results, dismissing them as not meeting basic standards.

The referendum also included a plan for a bicameral parliament consisting of a lower house the Oliy Majlis and an upper house Senate.

Members of the lower house are to be "full-time" legislators. Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on 26 December.

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan asserts that "democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be based upon common human principles, according to which the highest value shall be the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights.

The official position is summarised in a memorandum "The measures taken by the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of providing and encouraging human rights" [42] and amounts to the following: Uzbekistan continuously improves its laws and institutions in order to create a more humane society.

Over laws regulating the rights and basic freedoms of the people have been passed by the parliament. For instance, an office of Ombudsman was established in However, non-governmental human rights organizations, such as IHF , Human Rights Watch , Amnesty International , as well as United States Department of State and Council of the European Union , define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights" [14] and express profound concern about "wide-scale violation of virtually all basic human rights".

It has also been reported that forced sterilization of rural Uzbek women has been sanctioned by the government.

As of , reports on violations on human rights in Uzbekistan indicated that violations were still going on without any improvement.

In the report, Uzbekistan was one of the 11 worst countries for Political Rights and Civil Liberties. The civil unrest in Uzbekistan , which resulted in several hundred people being killed, is viewed by many as a landmark event in the history of human rights abuse in Uzbekistan.

The government of Uzbekistan is accused of unlawful termination of human life and of denying its citizens freedom of assembly and freedom of expression.

The government vehemently rebuffs the accusations, maintaining that it merely conducted an anti-terrorist operation, exercising only necessary force.

In real terms, this means that there are 1. Most work in the cotton industry. The government allegedly forces state employees to pick cotton in the fall months.

Islam Karimov died in and his successor Shavkat Mirziyoyev is considered by most to be pursuing a less autocratic path by increasing cooperation with human rights NGOs, [58] [59] scheduling Soviet-style exit visas to be abolished in , [60] and reducing sentences for certain misdemeanor offenses.

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces viloyatlar , singular viloyat , compound noun viloyati e. Names are given below in Uzbek , Russian , and Karakalpak languages when applicable, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist.

The provinces are further divided into districts tuman. Uzbekistan has the fourth-largest gold deposits in the world. The country mines 80 tons of gold annually, seventh in the world.

The country has significant untapped reserves of oil and gas: It is also a regionally significant producer of natural gas, coal, copper, oil, silver and uranium.

Facing a multitude of economic challenges upon acquiring independence, the government adopted an evolutionary reform strategy, with an emphasis on state control, reduction of imports and self-sufficiency in energy.

Since , the state-controlled media have repeatedly proclaimed the success of this "Uzbekistan Economic Model" [76] and suggested that it is a unique example of a smooth transition to the market economy while avoiding shock, pauperism and stagnation.

The gradualist reform strategy has involved postponing significant macroeconomic and structural reforms. The state in the hands of the bureaucracy has remained a dominant influence in the economy.

Corruption permeates the society and grows more rampant over time: A February report on the country by the International Crisis Group suggests that revenues earned from key exports, especially cotton, gold, corn and increasingly gas, are distributed among a very small circle of the ruling elite, with little or no benefit for the populace at large.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit , "the government is hostile to allowing the development of an independent private sector, over which it would have no control".

The economic policies have repelled foreign investment, which is the lowest per capita in the CIS. However, strict currency controls and the tightening of borders have lessened the effect of this measure.

Stabilisation efforts implemented with guidance from the IMF [82] paid off. The government of Uzbekistan restricts foreign imports in many ways, including high import duties.

Excise taxes are applied in a highly discriminatory manner to protect locally produced goods. A number of CIS countries are officially exempt from Uzbekistan import duties.

Uzbekistan has a Bilateral Investment Treaty with fifty other countries. The stocks of all Uzbek joint stock companies around are traded on RSE.

The number of listed companies as of January exceeds Securities market volume reached 2 trillion in , and the number is rapidly growing due to the rising interest by companies of attracting necessary resources through the capital market.

According to Central Depository as of January par value of outstanding shares of Uzbek emitters exceeded 9 trillion. Uzbekistan is predicted to be one of the fastest-growing economies in the world top 26 in future decades, according to a survey by global bank HSBC.

The population of Uzbekistan is very young: There is some controversy about the percentage of the Tajik population. Today, the majority of Uzbeks are admixed and represent varying degrees of diversity.

Uzbekistan has an ethnic Korean population that was forcibly relocated to the region by Stalin from the Soviet Far East in — There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistan , mostly in Tashkent and Samarkand.

There were 94, Jews in Uzbekistan in [97] about 0. Fewer than 5, Jews remained in Uzbekistan in Russians in Uzbekistan represented 5.

During the Soviet period, Russians and Ukrainians constituted more than half the population of Tashkent. Uzbekistan has a Life expectancy in Uzbekistan is 66 years among men and 72 years among women.

Islam is the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, although Soviet power — discouraged the expression of religious belief.

Greater population [ clarification needed ] is believed [ by whom? Despite the predominance of Islam, the practice of the faith is far from monolithic.

Uzbekistanis have practised many versions of Islam. The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularization throughout the 20th century has left a wide variety of Islamic practices in Central Asia.

The end of Soviet control in Uzbekistan in did not bring an immediate upsurge of religion-associated fundamentalism , as many [ quantify ] had predicted, but rather a gradual re-acquaintance with the precepts of the Islamic faith.

The Jewish community in the Uzbek lands flourished for centuries, with occasional hardships during the reigns of certain rulers.

During the rule of Tamerlane in the 14th century Jews contributed greatly to his efforts to rebuild Samarkand and a great Jewish centre was established [ by whom?

After the area came under Russian rule in , Jews were granted [ by whom? By only one synagogue out of 30 remained in Samarkand; nevertheless, underground Jewish community life continued during the Soviet era.

During World War II [ when? In the late s nationalistic riots increased as the Soviet Union started to dissolve, damaging, among other areas, the Jewish quarter in Andijan.

The Uzbek language is one of the Turkic languages close to Uyghur language and both of them belong to the Karluk languages branch of the Turkic language family.

Uzbek language is the only de jure official national language, [] and since is officially written in the Latin alphabet. Although the Russian language is not formally clarified to be an official language in the country, it is widely used in all fields, including official documents.

Digital information from all forms of the government is bilingual. Russian is an important language for interethnic communication, especially in the cities, including much day-to-day social, technical, scientific, governmental and business use.

The country is also home to approximately one million people whose native language is Russian. The Tajik language a variety of Persian is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks official 1,5 million, non-official scholarly estimates are 8—11 million.

Karakalpak , is also a Turkic language but closer to Kazakh , is spoken in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and has an official status there.

This language is spoken by half a million people. More than , people also speak the Kazakh language. In the Latin alphabet was introduced and went through several revisions throughout the s.

Finally, in , the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced by Soviet authorities and was used until the fall of Soviet Union.

In Uzbekistan shifted back to the Latin script Uzbek alphabet , which was modified in and is being taught in schools since In schools, colleges and universities teach only in Latin script.

At the same time, in the country for Uzbek language is also used officially abolished the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is used in a number of popular newspapers and websites.

Some of the text on the TV on some channels is duplicated on the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrillic is popular with the older generation of Uzbeks who grew up on this alphabet.

There are no language requirements for the citizenship of Uzbekistan. According to the official source report, as of 10 March , the number of cellular phone users in Uzbekistan reached 7 million, up from 3.

As of 1 July , the estimated number of internet users was 1. Internet Censorship exists in Uzbekistan and in October the government toughened internet censorship by blocking access to proxy servers.

The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union.

For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekov , the Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city. There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered.

Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo.

Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries. Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighboring former republics of the Soviet Union.

Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan has launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand.

The new high-speed electric train Talgo , called Afrosiyob , was manufactured by Patentes Talgo S. Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off.

Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans.

With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia. The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Army , although it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorized infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state , and supported an active program by the U.

The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U. However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U.

The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in , about a quarter of its military budget , the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. It is also believed by some Uzbeks that the protests in Andijan were brought about by the U.

This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West. It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union , formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West.

The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

When Uzbekistan gained independence in , there was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region. The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam , which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital.

Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modes , similar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone.

Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate , with about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International School , a K international curriculum school.

Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government.

Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas , maintaining campuses in Tashkent.

Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture , as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterized as "noodle-rich".

Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes.

Oshi nahor , or morning plov , is served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.

Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorva , a soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually mutton , and fresh vegetables; norin and laghman , noodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; manti , chuchvara , and somsa , stuffed pockets of dough served as an appetizer or a main course; dimlama , a meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabs , usually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage taken throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance. Black tea is preferred in Tashkent , but both green and black teas are taken daily, without milk or sugar.

Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: Ayran , a chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea.

The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries.

Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov. Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times.

Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatov , light flyweight champion at the Summer Olympics , won the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganov , a sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

Gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, and gymnast Oksana Chusovitina has amassed over 70 medals for the country.

Uzbekistan is the home of the International Kurash Association. Kurash is an internationalized and modernized form of traditional Uzbek wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan. The current champions are Lokomotiv Tashkent. Pakhtakor holds the record for the most Uzbekistan champion titles, having won the league 10 times.

The current Player of the Year is Odil Akhmedov. After independence, Uzbekistan created its own football , rugby union , basketball and futsal national teams.

This tournament has been held since , and is played on outdoor hard courts. Chess is quite popular in Uzbekistan. Other popular sports in Uzbekistan include basketball , judo , team handball , baseball , taekwondo , and futsal.

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